Winter and Holiday Toxins

During the hustle and bustle of the holiday season, it is easy to let your guard down when it comes to
preventing toxic exposures to your pet. While the holidays bring more challenges to the already difficult
winter months, we cannot forget about outdoor toxin concerns frequently seen this time of year. Below is
a list of holiday-related decorations, plants and food items that the veterinarians at Pet Poison Helpline
recommend keeping away from pets.

Holiday Ornaments and decorations: When decorating for the season, consider your pets. Holiday
decorations such as old-fashioned bubble lights may contain poisonous
chemicals. If a pet chews on them, the liquid inside could be dangerous to
their health. Methylene chloride, the chemical in older bubble lights, can
result in depression, aspiration pneumonia, and irritation to the eyes, skin
and gastrointestinal tract. Glass ornaments that shine and shimmer are
often an enticing toy for your pet. However, if they were to bite in to, or
break one during play, the small glass pieces can lead to lacerations to the
skin and mouth, as well as damage to the esophagus and gastrointestinal
tract. Homemade dough ornaments pose a risk for causing elevated
sodium levels that may lead to severe neurologic abnormalities. If any of
these types of tree decorations are being used for your tree, it is
recommended to keep them towards the upper portion of the tree, where they are less likely to be
accessed by your pet. Many animals develop electrical burns in their mouth from chewing on strands of
lights, particularly cats and puppies. It is ideal to minimize dangling light strands to make them less
appealing to pets.

Tinsel: Another holiday ornament to avoid is tinsel. If you own a cat, toss the
tinsel! What looks like a shiny toy to your cat can prove deadly if ingested.
While tinsel itself is not “poisonous,” it can result in a linear foreign body
when eaten. A linear foreign body occurs when your pet swallows something
“stringy” (like ribbon, yarn, tinsel, etc.), which wraps around the base of the
tongue or anchors itself in the stomach, rendering it unable to pass through
the intestines. As the intestines contract and move, this string or linear
foreign body can slowly saw through the tissue, resulting in severe,
potentially life threatening damage to your pet’s intestinal tract. Ultimately,
pets run the risk of severe injury to, or rupture of, their intestines and
treatment requires costly abdominal surgery. Save your holiday bonus for
yourself instead of your pet’s surgery, and keep tinsel, ribbon, yarn, thread, fabric, etc. out of reach!

Liquid Potpourri/Oils/Candles: Filling your house with the smell of nutmeg or pine
for the holidays may seem inviting—but if you’re partial to heating your scented oils in
a simmer pot, know that they can cause serious harm to your cat; even a few licks
can result in severe chemical burns in the mouth, fever, difficulty breathing, and
tremors. Dogs aren’t as sensitive, but it’s still better to be safe than sorry—so scent
your home with a non-toxic candle kept safely out of kitty’s reach. Dry potpourri may
also cause chemical burns in the mouth, and also potential foreign bodies and
gastrointestinal upset depending on the size of animal and amount ingested. While
candles are often scented with oils, the largest concern with ingestion is a foreign
body and potential obstruction. In addition to an upset stomach, surgical removal of
the candle may be necessary in severe cases.

Plants: Though they have a bad rap, poinsettia plants are only mildly toxic. Far more
worrisome are holiday bouquets containing lilies (Lilium spp), holly, or mistletoe. Even
bouquets brought into the house by holiday guests should be thoroughly inspected, as lilies
are one of the most commonly used. Just one or two bites from a lily can result in kidney
failure in cats – even the pollen and water that the plant is in are thought to be poisonous!
When in doubt, don’t let these bouquets in a cat-loving household!
Other yuletide plants such as holly berries and mistletoe can also be
toxic to pets. When Christmas or English holly is ingested, it can result
in severe gastrointestinal upset thanks to the spiny leaves and the potentially toxic substances
(including saponins, methylxanthines, and cyanogens). If ingested, most pets smack their lips,
drool, and head shake excessively due to the mechanical injury from the spiny leaves. As for
mistletoe, most of us hang it high enough so it’s out of reach of our pets – nevertheless, it can
also be toxic if ingested. Thankfully, American mistletoe is less toxic than the European varieties.
Mild signs of gastrointestinal irritation are seen, although if ingested in large amounts, collapse,
hypotension (low blood pressure), ataxia (difficulty walking), seizures and death have also been
Recently, florists have started to use Japanese Yew (Taxus spp.) to make wreaths – all parts of this evergreen except
for the flesh of the red aril are very poisonous, as they contain taxines, a cardiotoxin. If ingested, this plant can result
in dizziness, an abnormal heart rate (initially elevated, then slowed), hypotension, dilated pupils, coma, and death. As
horses are very susceptible to yew poisoning, make sure not to have this around the barn or pasture!

Alcohol: Most people know not to give alcoholic drinks to their pets; however, alcohol poisoning in pets is more
common than you think. This is because alcohol can be found in surprising places! Rum-soaked fruitcake, or
unbaked dough that contains yeast, result in alcohol poisoning and other problems. Rising dough will expand in the
warm, moist environment of the stomach and can result in a bloat, which can then progress to a GDV or gastricdilitation
with volvulus (twisted stomach). Signs of this include vomiting, non-productive retching, distended stomach,
an elevated heart rate, and weakness or collapse. Secondly, alcohol from the fermenting yeast is rapidly absorbed
into the bloodstream and affects pets quickly. Ingestion of alcohol can cause dangerous drops in blood sugar, blood
pressure, and body temperature. Intoxicated animals can experience seizures and respiratory failure.
Holiday Foods: With the holiday season comes a delightful variety of baked goods, chocolate confections and other
rich, fattening foods. However, it is not wise, and in some cases, quite dangerous, to share these treats with your
pets. Keep your pet on his or her regular diet over the holidays and do not let family and friends sneak in treats.

Foods that can present problems include:
• Foods containing grapes, raisins and currants (such as fruit cakes, breads and cookies) can result in
kidney failure in dogs.
• Chocolate and cocoa contain theobromine, a chemical highly toxic to dogs and cats. Ingestion in small
amounts can cause vomiting and diarrhea but large amounts can cause seizures and heart arrhythmias.
• Many sugarless gums and candies contain xylitol, a sweetener which is toxic to dogs. It causes a lifethreatening
drop in blood sugar and liver failure.
• Leftover fatty, meat scraps can produce severe inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) leading to
abdominal pain, vomiting and bloody diarrhea.

Ice Melt: Ice melts are commonly used around entryways and sidewalks and the containers that are filled with these
products are often left within a pet’s reach. There are numerous formulations available, many of which contain salt
(sodium chloride), and small exposures typically lead to stomach upset, and dermal and paw pad irritation. Larger
ingestions may quickly cause salt poisoning which can result in a rapid onset of vomiting, excessive thirst and
seizures. If your pet has consumed any amount of ice melt, it is important to call for help.

When it comes to the holidays, the best thing a pet owner can do is to become educated on common indoor and outdoor
household toxins and pet-proof your environment accordingly. If you think your pet has been poisoned, contact your veterinarian
or Pet Poison Helpline at 800-213-6680, with any questions or concerns.

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